The clean lines and minimal decoration of this style was associated with entertainment and glamour. A decorative style of bold geometric shapes and bright colors, it encompassed furniture, textiles, ceramics, sculpture and architecture. The term was coined after the Exposition Internationale des Arts Decoratifs et Industriel Modernes (International Exhibition of Modern and Industrial Decorative Arts) held in Paris in 1925.
Although it was popular only for a few years, the flowing lines and organic forms of this style spread across the world. Translated literally as ‘new art’, this was a short-lived movement which developed from a fundamentally new approach to architecture and design that flourished in Europe and the USA at end of the 19th century and lasted until just before the outbreak of the First World War in 1914.
This is architecture that looks back to a Classical past. The roots of Classicism are in ancient Greek and Roman architecture - in the temple architecture of ancient Greece and in the religious, military and civic architecture of the Roman Empire.
Intellectually, Neoclassicism was symptomatic of a desire to return to the perceived “purity” of the arts of Rome, to the more vague perception (“ideal”) of Ancient Greek arts and, to a lesser extent, 16th-century Renaissance Classicism
Rejecting ornament and embracing minimalism, Modernism became the dominant global movement in 20th-century architecture and design. Modernism is the single most important new style or philosophy of architecture and design of the 20th century, associated with an analytical approach to the function of buildings, a strictly rational use of (often new) materials, an openness to structural innovation and the elimination of ornament. It has also been called International Modern or International Style, after an exhibition of modernist architecture in America in 1932 by Philip Johnson.
Baroque architecture is the building style of the Baroque era, begun in late 16th-century Italy, that took the Roman vocabulary of Renaissance architecture and used it in a new rhetorical and theatrical fashion, often to express the triumph of the Catholic Church and the absolutist state. It was characterized by new explorations of form, light and shadow, and dramatic intensity.
Baroque architecture is distinguished primarily by richly sculpted surfaces. Baroque architects freely moulded surfaces to achieve three-dimensional sculpted classicism, a Baroque surface is treated as a continuous whole.